Foundations of Education 0831 M/ED Solved Paper and Assignment 2021

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Q 1. Explain the significance of each source of knowledge by giving examples. Discuss the
contribution of philosophical, psychological and socio-economic foundations of education for
an ideal system of education in Pakistan.

Ways/Source of Acquiring Knowledge

Curious to know approximately new matters is the primary motivating element for looking new
knowledge. When someone feel disequilibrium concerning any remember of content, s/he begin
search for accomplishing legitimate conclusion regarding the problem of doubt. The technique
of explanation leads them to equilibration in their cognition. For the motive of getting new
information the people are the use of following methods to build up new knowledge.

Foundations of Education 0831

Sensory Perception
Senses are the gate approaches of information. Five senses help an person to get primary
information regarding any object, person or activities and so on. For instance, college students
can see an experiment conducted through the instructor, hear the explanation, contact the
object or product, odor the output, flavor the product and so on. Through this 5 interest (five
sense organs) or anybody interest (single feel organ) students are capable of assemble and verify
facts regarding the experiment carried out. Hence sensory perceptions are the one vital source
or approach of obtaining understanding. In the case of a researcher, the sensory perceptions are
vital to them to accumulate records and verify the authenticity and originality of received

Logical Reasoning
Logical reasoning is another manner of obtaining Knowledge. It is related to brainy functioning.
Ignorance and blind believes made man as a slumbering brains, later, curiosity and look for
purpose and impact dating paved the manner of unfolding natural truths and records. People
come to be contemporary and evolved by using the manner they approached the topics via
logical reasoning. Deductive as well as inductive reasoning are emerged by the point as methods
of logical reasoning. Individuals may also infer matters thru deductive reasoning, summary
thinking, locating dating among events and variables and so forth. For example a able individual
could make valid conclusion concerning the nature and results of positive occasions through
looking at conduct of individuals or studying chain of events, announcement and mindset of
national leaders and so on. Through the logical reasoning a researcher can deduct and infer
information concerning the research hassle.

Deductive Reasoning
It is the sooner philosophical technique of Logical Reasoning. Categorical syllogism is considered
as the vintage systematic approach of logical reasoning. The famous truth seeker Aristotle
evolved it as Deductive method of problem fixing. Moving from General assumptions to
particular application, meaning the overall to specific precept (DGP). It may be understood by
means of the rationale of express syllogism given beneath.

Categorical Syllogism
Syllogistic reasoning is a sort of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning for drawing a
valid conclusion primarily based on extra propositions. Categorical syllogism includes three
components; inclusive of Major premise, Minor Premise, Conclusion. It establishes a logical
dating between them.

Inductive Reasoning
Later tons innovative grievance had been raised regarding the technique drawing end from
standard phenomenon. Because of the motive that there is probably a few dogmas and myths,
baseless beliefs which had not been empirically proved but believed that, they are proper and as
well as had impacted the conclusion. So it results in developing unreliable and mistakes statistics
to the people. Hence many centuries later Francis bacon advocated the inductive approach of
reasoning or hassle solving which had kicked lower back the problem of the deductive method.
It is the system of specific observations of phenomenon which results in generalization. Here
individuals arrive to conclusions after the empirical verification of many man or woman
observations of a not unusual phenomenon. Hence there’s no possibility to undertake any
dogmas or myth as a foundation of information. Here the hassle solver guarantees the mortality
of the people or any organism specially case.

There are several activities in which a researcher wishes authoritative knowledge. All professional
information may be termed as authoritative know-how. One can get records from problem
authority concerning their worried. Right to records act is a great instance for the identical. If any
individual wants authentic facts concerning any authority s/he can record a query concerning his
facts concerned through RTI to concerned authority. This process ensures records seeker to get
actual understanding from authority. For instance, if a researcher wishes information regarding
the enrollment, dropout rate, literacy fee, finances allocation to extraordinary academic area,
s/he may be accumulating records from the concern authority regarding the above. The statistics
supplied by using the worried authority will be the information from authority or authoritative

Traditions are every other essential supply of expertise. Much social related knowledge is
preserved and transmitted through traditions. For instance, social abilities, values, social
functions are entirely routed in traditions of the society. Traditions have neighborhood in
addition to national impact. A researcher can get facts concerning the indigenous treatment
system, folklore arts, professional primarily based conventional social class are to be had from
social traditions. There a lot data which is essentially depends on traditions.

Personal in addition to expert experience of character contributes plenty in his understanding.
Personal revel in in circle of relatives, society, and community taught human beings many lessons
concerning the conduct, adjustment, social dealings, staying power and so forth. Professional
studies make man or woman flawlessly expert. Knowledge of topics concerning to be carried out
or not to be do in non-public as well as expert state of affairs create thru reviews. Learning via
doing is also come beneath this class.

Trial and Error
Trial and mistakes is one of the ways of obtaining new know-how. The time period trial and
blunders is contributed through famous psychologist E.L. Thorndike. Individuals analyze extra
things via trial and error system. Knowledge related to realistic, professional, skilled and semiskilled professions are largely relying upon on this supply of understanding. For example,
knowledge of use of pc, smart smartphone, using, gambling cricket, football, coaching may be
received through trial and errors.

Scientific approach

Knowledge can be created or accrued through various method. Scientific technique is very
essential method of expertise acquisition. Scientific technique guarantees the reliability and
rationality of the records or understanding obtained.
Foundations of Education
Foundations of Education refers to a extensively-conceived area of instructional study that
derives its person and methods from some of academic disciplines, combinations of disciplines,
and area studies, which includes: records, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, faith, political
technology, economics, psychology, cultural studies, gender studies, comparative and
international training, instructional studies, and educational coverage studies. As awesome from
Psychological Foundations of Education, which depend on the behavioral sciences, these
Standards address the Social Foundations of Education, which depend closely on the disciplines
and methodologies of the arts, especially records and philosophy, and the social sciences, which
include sociology and political science. The motive of foundations has a look at is to deliver these
disciplinary sources to endure in growing interpretive, normative, and important views on
training, each inside and outside of faculties. The interpretive views use ideas and theories
advanced within the humanities and the social sciences to assist college students in analyzing,
know-how, and explaining training within exceptional contexts.
Foundational research promotes analysis of the motive, that means, and results of tutorial
institutions, consisting of faculties. Such research attends especially to the various contexts inside
which academic phenomena occur, and the way interpretation can vary with specific historical,
philosophical, and cultural views. The normative perspectives help students in inspecting and
explaining schooling in light of cost orientations. Foundational research promotes understanding
of normative and moral behavior in educational improvement and recognition of the inevitable
presence of normative affects in academic thought and exercise. Foundational studies probe the
character of assumptions approximately schooling and schooling. They have a look at the relation
of coverage evaluation to values and the volume to which instructional policymaking reflects
values. Finally, they inspire students to increase their own value positions regarding training on
the basis of important take a look at and their own reflections. The important views employ
normative interpretations to assist students to increase inquiry capabilities, to question
instructional assumptions and preparations, and to perceive contradictions and inconsistencies
among social and educational values, guidelines, and practices. In particular, the crucial views
engage college students in employing democratic values to assess educational beliefs,
regulations, and practices in light in their origins, impacts, and consequences.

Q 2. To what extent you are satisfied with the aims of education of our country? Discuss the
influence of these aims on the historical development of education in Pakistan and explain
briefly different trends in education evident in Pakistan now a days.

The most important responsibility of society is to guard its way of life. There are various methods
employed for protection of lifestyle and societal norms however the simplest way of protective
way of life is Education. Through training, the lessons of society’s subculture and norms are given
to the destiny generations. This ensures transfer of cultural values from one technology to the
alternative. If the brand new generations of young people aren’t supplied the transfer of way of
life via medium of schooling, it is going to be disastrous for cultural sustainability in a society. Its
best thru the medium of schooling that lifestyle of a society ensures its survival.
This brings us to the belief that training is simply no longer a tool for enlightening people; it also
includes with itself a few important pursuits which ensure the boom of society and nurturing of
values and norms among the people dwelling in the society. Let’s discuss those ambitions of
training separately in a quick yet thoughtful way.
1) Cultural Transfer
Culture is the muse stone of society. Any society or group is recognized through its culture. If
culture vanishes, so does the society. That is why each network struggles to keep ensuring
survival in their subculture. For this to take place, cultural transfer is honestly vital. In this
procedure, the principal position is performed by using schooling. Through schooling, no longer
best and man or woman learns the values and norms however also receives to recognize their
significance in day by day life. Telling lies, exploiting someone, dishonesty and moral corruption
are some of greater sins devoted by means of human beings. Opposite to this, telling the truth,
giving the proper to its real owner and displaying honesty are very awesome ethical values that
ought to be followed by way of each human being. A person learns those values and offers admire
to them simplest by acquiring schooling. For ensuring cultural switch, it’s far essential that the
strong connection exists between the society and the educational institutes, a society believes
firmly in adopting these top values which can be being taught to the more modern era and the
academics also are sincere in teaching those values. To make sure the transfer of suitable cultural
values, this robust relation wishes to reinforce between society and academic institutes.
2) Social Order
By social order, it is meant making sure law and order in a society. Law and order will succeed in
society when the individuals will comply with all rules and regulations, there shall be no incidents
of robberies, and no sort of violent behavior might be tolerated. Only then the boom and
development of society may be ensured. In case of lawlessness, each man or woman is simplest

involved with saving his/her lifestyles and belongings. This creates a situation where
development turns into stagnant. To ensure regulation and order in society, education can play
a essential role. The children who go to faculties/colleges frequently obey all policies and legal
guidelines which hold social order in society and discourage rule breaking. Educated human
beings are bounded by using rules of society and try to emerge as shining examples for all people
which provoke a wave of other humans following them in watching all regulations. Education
courses individuals approximately their roles and responsibilities which they will be supply for
this reason for the betterment of every person in a society. This all leads to peace and concord
among individuals.
3) Developing a subject for Social Responsibility
Education not most effective publications humans regarding their roles and obligations however
additionally teaches them to deliver on these with utmost truth and honesty. This develops a
responsible mind-set in people.
4) Training for Employment
In fact, the principle intention of training is to make someone professional and beneficial for
society. Alongside cultural transfer and growing civic obligation, a person can end up useful for
the society when he/she collect skills and education to earn a decent livelihood. Those who are
steady law breakers and bask in anti-societal activities are forced to achieve this due to the fact
they’re depressed, each mentally and financially. That is why purpose of schooling is permitting
young human beings to acquire a first rate incomes opportunity. It is the duty of the better
authorities to turn their interest in the direction of producing employment possibilities thru
training with the aid of introducing technical training subjects in colleges and supplying essential
support for young boys and girls to research abilities in small companies like farming, making
garments and handicrafts. This will allow young people to establish their small businesses and
consequently gambling a role to become useful and responsible citizens of society.
Pakistan lines its history of education to the appearance of Islam and Islamic/Arabic way of life
to the Indian subcontinent with the invasion of Muhammad bin Qasim in Sind in 712 A.D. By that
time, the Arabs had already outstanding themselves now not handiest as conquerors and
directors over widespread territories in the Middle East and North Africa but even greater
notably as creators of a tradition replete with literature, artwork, architecture, and religious
research. With the status quo of Muslim rule at Delhi in 1208 A.D., the Islamic subculture made
tremendous inroads on the subcontinent, changing 1 / 4 of its population to Islam over the
subsequent 5 centuries.
The traditional faculty device had been the mainstay of education among Muslims of the
subcontinent from the thirteenth to the eighteenth centuries till the rise of the British power
beginning in 1757. Increasingly, a few leaders of the Muslim community, substantially Sir Sayyid
Ahmad Khan (1817-1898), advised the Muslim teens to enroll in the modern instructional system
initiated by using the British. With the adoption of English as a medium of coaching after Thomas
Babington Macaulay’s notorious minute in 1835, and the rapid growth in the number of
educational establishments following Sir Charles Wood’s Education Despatch of July 1854,
gaining knowledge of in Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian receded, making way for English and for the
adoption of Western schooling. In 1857 three universities have been hooked up inside the
“presidency” cities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras, generating no longer only the subordinate
bureaucrats as intended but also loads of college graduates trying to soak up better training in
the social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences.
Q 3. Elaborate the strengths and limitations of each mode of education (formal, informal and nonformal) and discuss which one is the most suitable to solve major problems and issues of education in
Education brings herbal and lasting alternate in a man or woman’s reasoning and potential to
achieve the centered intention. It facilitates us to analyze our personal considerations and
thoughts and makes it prepared to explicit it in various shapes. Education is the primary
component that encourages us to differentiate among right and incorrect because in the absence
of training, we are able to do what we need or we can’t acquire our aim.
Straightforwardly, we will say, “training is the passage to development”. It is moreover the
manner to our destiny as achievements can simplest be completed when people have records,
aptitudes, and body of mind. In this way, education resembles a medium through which we can
partner with various individuals and provide our mind. To address troubles and do inventiveness
we first want to benefit skill ability with a few critical abilities. We require getting to know and
capabilities to wind up an increasing number of resourceful. So schooling is fundamentally
gaining knowledge of competencies and thoughts that can make us increasingly more progressive
and problem solver. Education is to pick out up the ability to expand and deal with issues which
will acquire their lawful reasons.
Types of Education
Education is going past what takes places inside the four walls of the classroom. An infant gets
the training from his studies out of doors the school in addition to from those within on the basis
of those elements. There are 3 main sorts of schooling, namely, Formal, Informal and Non-formal.
Each of those sorts is mentioned underneath.
Formal Education
Formal schooling or formal getting to know commonly takes area inside the premises of the
college, wherein a person may also analyze basic, academic, or trade capabilities. Small kids
regularly attend a nursery or kindergarten but regularly formal education starts off evolved in
elementary school and continues with secondary school.
Post-secondary schooling (or better education) is commonly at a university or college which can
also provide an academic degree. It is related to a specific or stage and is furnished under a sure
set of regulations and rules. The formal schooling is given by using specifically qualified teachers
they’re alleged to be green within the artwork of preparation. It additionally observes strict field.
The student and the trainer both are aware about the information and have interaction
themselves within the process of schooling.

Characteristics of formal training
• Formal education is structured hierarchically.
• It is deliberate and planned.
• Scheduled expenses are paid frequently.
• It has a chronological grading machine.
• It has a syllabus and difficulty-orientated. The syllabus needs to be protected inside a
selected term.
• The toddler is taught by the academics
Advantages of Formal education:
• An organized instructional version and updated direction contents.
• Students accumulate know-how from educated and professional teachers.
• Structured and systematic gaining knowledge of manner.
• Intermediate and final tests are ensured to increase students to the following mastering
• Institutions are managerially and physically organized.
• Leads to a formally identified certificate.
• Easy access to jobs.
Disadvantages of Formal education:
• Sometimes, awesome college students are bored due to the long anticipate the expiry of
the educational session to sell to the following stage
• Chance of horrific habits’ adoption can be alarming due to the presence of each true and
bad student in the study room
• Wastage of time as some lazy college students may additionally fail to learn nicely no
matter motivation by using the professional running shoes.
• Some unprofessional and non-well known training device may additionally purpose the
wastage of money and time of the scholars which results in the disappointment from
formal training and argue them to move for non-formal education.
• Costly and rigid education as examine to other kinds of getting to know
Informal Education
Informal education may be a figure coaching a toddler the way to put together a meal or journey
a bicycle. People also can get an informal education with the aid of analyzing many books from a
library or instructional web sites. Informal training is whilst you are not reading in a faculty and
do not use any unique learning method. In this type of education, conscious efforts aren’t
involved. It is neither pre-deliberate nor planned. It can be learned at a few market place, inn or
at home.
Unlike formal schooling, casual education is not imparted by means of an institution which
includes college or university. Informal education is not given in step with any fixed timetable.
There is not any set curriculum required. Informal education consists of experiences and in fact
residing inside the circle of relatives or network.
Characteristics of Informal Education
• It is unbiased of boundary partitions.
• It has no definite syllabus.
• It is not pre-deliberate and has no timetable.
• No costs are required as we get informal schooling through each day revel in and via
getting to know new matters.
• It is a lifelong method in a natural way.
• The certificate/levels aren’t involved and one has no pressure for learning the brand new
• You can get from any source along with media, lifestyles reviews, buddies, own family etc.
Advantages of Informal Education
• More naturally learning procedure as you can learn at everywhere and at any time from
your day by day experience.
• It entails sports like man or woman and personal research on a topic of hobby for
themselves via utilising books, libraries, social media, net or getting assistance from casual
• Utilizes a diffusion of strategies.

• No precise time span.
• Less luxurious and time-efficient gaining knowledge of procedure.
• No need to lease specialists as maximum of the specialists can be inclined to share their
treasured know-how with students/public thru social media and the net.
• Learners may be picked up the requisite information from books, TV, radio or
conversations with their buddies/own family contributors.
Disadvantages of Informal Education
• Information acquired from the net, social media, TV, radio or conversations with
pals/circle of relatives’ contributors can also result in the disinformation.
• Utilized strategies won’t be suitable.
• No right schedule/time span.
• Unpredictable outcomes which actually the wastage of time.
• Lack of self-belief inside the learner.
• Absence of discipline, mindset and appropriate habits.
• Read additionally: Importance of training: complete article
Non-formal Education
Non-formal training consists of grownup basic training, person literacy training or faculty
equivalency preparation. In non-formal schooling, a person (who isn’t in faculty) can analyze
literacy, other simple talents or process capabilities. Home education, individualized guidance
(which includes programmed learning), distance studying and computer-assisted practise are
other possibilities.
Non-formal education is imparted consciously and deliberately and systematically implemented.
It need to be prepared for a homogeneous institution. Non-formal, education should be
programmed to serve the desires of the identified institution. This will necessitate flexibility
inside the design of the curriculum and the scheme of assessment.
Characteristics of Non-Formal Education
• The non-formal education is deliberate and takes area other than the faculty gadget.
• The timetable and syllabus may be adjustable.
• Unlike theoretical formal schooling, it’s far practical and vocational education.
• Non-formal schooling has no age restrict.
• Fees or certificate may or might not be essential.
• It may be complete time or part-time mastering and you could earn and examine
• It entails gaining knowledge of expert abilities.
Advantages of Non-Formal Education
• Practiced and vocational training.
• Naturally growing minds that do not look forward to the gadget to amend.
• Literacy with skillfulness boom in which self-mastering is appreciated.
• Flexibility in age, curriculum and time.
• Open-ended academic device wherein each the private and non-private sector are
worried in the method.
• No need to conduct normal assessments.
• Diploma, certificates, and award are not critical to be presented.
Disadvantages of Non-Formal Education
• Attendance of participants is unsteady.
• Sometimes, it’s simply wastage of time as there is no want to behavior the examination
on ordinary basis and no degree/diploma is awarded at the cease of the schooling
• Basic reading and writing abilities are essential to analyze.
• No professional and trained instructors.
• Students may not revel in full confidence because the normal college students enjoy.
• Some institutes provide faux certification through on line courses just for the sake of

Foundations of Education 0831 Solved Paper and Assignment 2021
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